See the full list at:

Recent Publications:

1.       Yang Xiao, Guiqing Xu, Jing Han, Hua Xiao, Jianwen Xiong, & Lei Bao, (2020) Assessing the Longitudinal Measurement invariance of the Force Concept Inventory and the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism, Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 16(2):020103, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.16.020103

2.       Wangyi Xu, Qiaoyi Liu, Kathleen Koenig, Joseph Fritchman, Jing Han, Sudong Pan & Lei Bao, (2020) Assessment of Knowledge Integtration in Student Learning of Momentum, Physical Review Physics Education Research, 16(1), 010130. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.16.010130

3.       Yang Xiao, Joseph C. Fritchman, Jacqueline Y. Bao, Ying Nie, Jing Han, Jianwen Xiong, Hua Xiao, & Lei Bao, (2019)  Linking and comparing short and full-length concept inventories of electricity and magnetism using item response theory, Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 15 (2) 020149.

4.       Bao, L., Koenig, K. Physics education research for 21st century learning. Discip Interdscip Sci Educ Res 1, 2 (2019) doi:10.1186/s43031-019-0007-8

5.       Ying Nie, Yang Xiao, Joseph C. Fritchman, Qiaoyi Liu, Jing Han,Jianwen Xiong & Lei Bao (2019) Teaching towards knowledge integration in learning force and motion, International Journal of Science Education, 41:16, 2271-2295, DOI:10.1080/09500693.2019.1672905

6.       Rui Dai, Joseph C. Fritchman, Qiaoyi Liu, Yang Xiao, Haibo Yu, & Lei Bao, (2019) Assessment of student understanding on light interference, Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 15(2), 020134.

7.       Bao, L. & Fritchman, J. Dual-Space Information Modeling of Socio-Economic Systems under Information Asymmetry. Entropy, 21(5), 528, (2019).

8.       Yang Xiao, Kathleen Koenig, Jing Han, Qiaoyi Liu, Jianwen Xiong, Lei Bao, “Test equity in developing short version conceptual inventories: A case study on the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism,” Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 15, 010122, (2019).

9.       Kathleen Koenig, Krista E. Wood, Larry Bortner, & Lei Bao, “Modifying Traditional Labs to Target Scientific Reasoning,” Journal of College Science Teaching, 48(5), 28-35, (2019).

10.    Lei Bao, Yang Xiao, Kathleen Koenig, & Jing Han, “Validity Evaluation of the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning,” Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 14, 020106, (2018).

11.    Yang Xiao, Jing Han, Kathleen Koenig, Jianwen Xiong, & Lei Bao , “Multilevel Rasch modeling of two-tier multiple choice test: A case study using Lawson’s classroom test of scientific reasoning,” Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 14, 020104 (2018).

12.    Bao, L. & Fritchman J., (2018) Information of Complex Systems and Applications in Agent Based Modeling, Nature: Scientific Reports 8, Article number: 6177,

13.    Han, J., Chen, L., Fu, Z., Fritchman, J., & Bao, L. (2017). An Eye-tracking Study of Visual Attention in Web based Assessment with the Force Concept Inventory, Eur. J. Phys. 38 (4) 045702.

14.    Koenig, K., Zydney, J., & Bao, L. (2017) Enhancing a Scientific Inquiry Lesson through Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, Science Scope, 041(9), 80-87, doi 10.2505/4/ss17_041_01_80.

15.    Han, J., Koenig, K., Cui, L., Fritchman, J., Li, D., Sun, W., Fu, Z., & Bao, L. (2016) Experimental Validation of the Half-Length Force Concept Inventory, Physical Review Physics Education Research, 12, 020122.

16.    Zhou, S., Han, J.,  Koenig, K., Raplinger, A., Pi, Y., Li, D., Xiao, H., Fu, Z., & Bao, L. (2016) Assessment of Scientific Reasoning: the Effects of Task Context, Data, and Design on Student Reasoning in Control of Variables, Thinking Skills and Creativity, 19, 175–187.

17.    Han, J., Bao, L., Chen, L., Cai, T., Pi, Y., Zhou, S., Tu, Y., & Koenig, K., (2015) Dividing the Force Concept Inventory into Two Equivalent Half-Length Tests, Physical Review Physics Education Research, 11, 010112.